This area includes design, fabrication and measurement of Photovoltaic and Thermoelectric and adjunct devices for the efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity. It is an area of worldwide frenzied activity and explosive growth. The solar market was approximately $20 billion dollars per annum in 2006 and is expected to have grown to $30 billion by 2007 and ultimately rise to $85 billion by 2011. The expertise within the network provides real opportunities for new approaches to renewable energy and niche market applications. Particular strengths include organics and GaN devices.